# Question 4.2: Determine the odd and even parity bits for the ASCII charact......

Determine the odd and even parity bits for the ASCII character R.

Step-by-Step
The 'Blue Check Mark' means that this solution was answered by an expert.

The hex code for the ASCII character R is 52, which is P1010010 in binary, where P designates the parity bit.
For odd parity, the parity bit is a 0 because 52 hex contains three logic 1s, which is an odd number. Therefore, the odd-parity bit sequence for the ASCII character R is 01010010.
For even parity, the parity bit is 1, making the total number of logic 1s in the eight-bit sequence four, which is an even number. Therefore, the even-parity bit sequence for the ASCII character R is 11010010.
Other forms of parity include marking parity (the parity bit is always a 1), no parity (the parity bit is not sent or checked), and ignored parity (the parity bit is always a 0 bit if it is ignored). Marking parity is useful only when errors occur in a large number of bits. Ignored parity allows receivers that are incapable of checking parity to communicate with devices that use parity.

Question: 4.6

## For the following sequence of bits, identify the ASCII-encoded character, the start and stop bits, and the parity bits (assume even parity and two stop bits): ...

\qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \...
Question: 4.7

## For the following string of ASCII-encoded characters, identify each character (assume odd parity): ...

\qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \...
Question: 4.5

## For a 12-bit data string of 101100010010, determine the number of Hamming bits required, arbitrarily place the Hamming bits into the data string, determine the logic condition of each Hamming bit, assume an arbitrary single-bit transmission error, and prove that the Hamming code will successfully ...

Substituting m = 12 into Equation 2, the number of...
Question: 4.4

## Determine the BCS for the following data and CRC generating polynomials: Data G(x) = x^7 + x^5 + x^4 + x² + x¹ + x^0 = 10110111 CRC P(x) = x^5 + x^4 + x¹ + x^0 = 110011 ...

First, G(x) is multiplied by the number of bits in...
Question: 4.3

## Determine the VRCs and LRC for the following ASCII-encoded message: THE CAT. Use odd parity for the VRCs and even parity for the LRC. ...

The LRC is 00101111 binary (2F hex), which is the ...
Question: 4.1