## Q. 4.2

Determine the odd and even parity bits for the ASCII character R.

## Verified Solution

The hex code for the ASCII character R is 52, which is P1010010 in binary, where P designates the parity bit.
For odd parity, the parity bit is a 0 because 52 hex contains three logic 1s, which is an odd number. Therefore, the odd-parity bit sequence for the ASCII character R is 01010010.
For even parity, the parity bit is 1, making the total number of logic 1s in the eight-bit sequence four, which is an even number. Therefore, the even-parity bit sequence for the ASCII character R is 11010010.
Other forms of parity include marking parity (the parity bit is always a 1), no parity (the parity bit is not sent or checked), and ignored parity (the parity bit is always a 0 bit if it is ignored). Marking parity is useful only when errors occur in a large number of bits. Ignored parity allows receivers that are incapable of checking parity to communicate with devices that use parity.