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Chapter 4

Q. 4.15

Acid rain in the form of aqueous H_{ 2}SO_{4} slowly erodes marble statues, as shown in Figure 4.15. If we add 16.75 mL of 0.0100 M H_{ 2}SO_{ 4} to 25.00 mg of CaCO_{ 3}, will all of the CaCO_{ 3} react?

Figure 4.15

Step-by-Step

Verified Solution

Collect and Organize Given the volume and molarity of the H_{ 2}SO_{ 4} solution, we can calculate the mass of CaCO_{ 3} that reacts.

Analyze We need the balanced chemical equation for the reaction to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction between CaCO_{ 3} and H_{ 2}SO_{ 4} . The molecular equation is

CaCO_{ 3}(s)+H_{ 2}SO_{ 4}(aq) →CaSO_{ 4}(s)+H_{ 2}O (\ell)+CO_{2}(g)

One mole of H_{ 2}SO_{ 4} (aq) reacts with 1 mole of CaCO_{ 3} (s). The steps involved in calculating the moles of H_{ 2}SO_{ 4} available and the mass (in milligrams) of calcium carbonate that will react with it are

Solve We calculate the mass of calcium carbonate that reacts, starting with the volume of sulfuric acid available and its molarity:

16.75  \sout{mL  H_{ 2}SO_{ 4}}\times \frac{1  \sout{L}}{10^{3}  \sout{mL}} \times \frac{1.00\times 10^{-2}  \sout{mol  H_{ 2}SO_{ 4}}}{1  \sout{L  H_{ 2}SO_{ 4}}} \times \frac{1  \sout{mol  CaCO_{3}}}{1  \sout{mol  H_{2}SO_{4}}} \times \frac{100.09  \sout{g  CaCO_{3}}}{1  \sout{mol  CaCO_{3}}} \times \frac{1000  mg  CaCO_{3}}{1  \sout{g  CaCO_{3}}} =16.8  mg  CaCO_{3}

Only 16.8 mg of the 25.00 mg sample will react to form solid calcium sulfate (Table 4.4).

Table 4.4 Solubility Rules for Common Ionic Compounds in Water
All compounds containing the following ions are soluble:

  •  Cations: Group 1 ions (alkali metals) and NH_{4}^{+}
  •  Anions: NO_{3}^{-} and CH_{3}COO^{-}  (acetate)
Compounds containing the following anions are soluble except as noted:

  • Cl^{-},  Br^{-}, and I^{-}, except those of Ag^{+},  Cu^{+},  Hg_{2}^{2+}, and Pb^{2+}
  • SO_{4}^{2-}, except those of Ba^{2+},  Ca^{2+},  Hg_{2}^{2+},  Pb^{2+}, and Sr^{2+}
Insoluble compounds include the following:

  • All hydroxides except those of group 1 cations and Ca(OH)_{2},  Sr(OH)_{2}, and Ba(OH)_{2}
  • All sulfides except those of group 1 cations and NH_{4}^{+},  Cas,  SrS. and Bas
  • All carbonates except those of group 1 cations and NH_{4}^{+}
  • All phosphates except those of group 1 cations and NH_{4}^{+}
  • Most fluorides, though not those of group 1 cations and NH_{4}^{+}

Think About It The sulfuric acid is the limiting reactant, since only 67% of the CaCO_{ 3} reacts under the conditions in this exercise.