Holooly Rewards

We are determined to provide the latest solutions related to all subjects FREE of charge!

Please sign up to our reward program to support us in return and take advantage of the incredible listed offers.

Enjoy Limited offers, deals & Discounts by signing up to Holooly Rewards Program

Holooly Ads. Manager

Advertise your business, and reach millions of students around the world.

Holooly Tables

All the data tables that you may search for.

Holooly Arabia

For Arabic Users, find a teacher/tutor in your City or country in the Middle East.

Holooly Sources

Find the Source, Textbook, Solution Manual that you are looking for in 1 click.

Holooly Help Desk

Need Help? We got you covered.

Chapter 2

Q. 2.2

Drawing resonance Forms for an anion

Draw three resonance structures for the carbonate ion, {CO_3}^{2-}

S t r a t e g y
Look for three-atom groupings that contain a multiple bond next to an atom with a p orbital. Then exchange the positions of the multiple bond and the electrons in the p orbital. In the carbonate ion, each of the singly bonded oxygen atoms with its lone pairs and negative charge is next to the C=O double bond, giving the grouping O=C-O:^{-}


Verified Solution

Exchanging the position of the double bond and an electron lone pair in each grouping generates three resonance structures:

Draw three resonance structures for the carbonate ion, CO3^2-