Subscribe $4.99/month

Un-lock Verified Step-by-Step Experts Answers.

Find the Source, Textbook, Solution Manual that you are looking for in 1 click.

Our Website is free to use.
To help us grow, you can support our team with a Small Tip.

All the data tables that you may search for.

Need Help? We got you covered.

For Arabic Users, find a teacher/tutor in your City or country in the Middle East.

Products

Find the Source, Textbook, Solution Manual that you are looking for in 1 click.

For Arabic Users, find a teacher/tutor in your City or country in the Middle East.

Need Help? We got you covered.

Chapter 4

Q. 4.1

The average concentration of chloride ion in seawater is 19.353  g  Cl^{–}/kg solution. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the concentration of Cl^{–} ions in drinking water not exceed 250 ppm (2.50 × 10²  ppm). How many times as much chloride ion is there in seawater than in the maximum concentration allowed in drinking water?

Step-by-Step

Verified Solution

Collect and Organize We are given the concentrations of Cl^{–} ions in two different units, g  Cl^{–}/kg and ppm, and we are asked to determine the ratio of Cl^{–} ions in seawater to the upper limit of Cl^{–} ions allowed in drinking water.

Analyze We know how to create conversion factors from equalities. We can convert the seawater concentration to milligrams of Cl^{–} per kilogram of seawater by using the conversion factor 10³ mg/1 g and then use the fact that 1 mg solute/kg solution = 1 ppm. We expect the value in mg/kg to be much larger than the value given in g/kg.

Solve

19.353 \frac{\sout{g}  Cl^{–}}{kg  seawater} \times \frac{10^{3}  mg}{\sout{g}} =19,353 \frac{mg  Cl^{–}}{kg  seawater} =19,353  ppm  Cl^{–}

Next we take the ratio of the two concentrations:

\frac{19,353  ppm  Cl^{–}  in  seawater}{250  ppm  Cl^{–}  in  drinking  water}=77.4

The concentration of Cl^{–} ions in seawater is 77.4 times greater than would be acceptable in drinking water.

Think About It Common sense says that seawater is much saltier than drinking water.
Drinking seawater induces nausea and vomiting, and it may even cause death. We could also have converted the drinking water concentration to grams of Cl^{–} per kilogram of drinking water and compared that number with 19.353  g  Cl^{–}/kg  seawater. It does not matter which units you choose when making a comparison as long as the units of the two numbers are the same.