# Question 23.4: The operational amplifiers used in Fig. 23-12 have an Rin of...

The operational amplifiers used in Fig. 23-12 have an $R_{in}$ of 3 MΩ, an $R_{CM}$ of 200 MΩ, and an open-loop voltage gain of 175,000. Solve for $Z_{in(CL)}, A_{V(CL)}$, and $v_{ref}.$

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Question: 23.6

## A 12-bit ADC system is used to digitize a 0-V to 5-V analog dc voltage. Determine the resolution of the ADC system and the voltage step size. ...

Resolution = # of bits Resolution = 12, which prov...
Question: 23.5

## A mixing tank, like the one shown in Fig. 23-18, is being filled with solution. An ultrasonic sensor is located at the top of the tank. The tank is 10 feet in diameter and 15 feet tall. The mixing process in the tank requires 1021 ft3 of solution. Solve for the required height of solution ...

Volume of a cylinder: $V = πr^2 h$ Wh...
Question: 23.3

## The RTD shown in Fig. 23-7 has a resistance ranging from 1 kΩ to 1.1 kΩ between 0°C and 100°C. The 741 operational amplifiers used have these values: AVOL = 100,000, Rin = 2 MΩ, and RCM = 200. Utilizing the differential amplifier with buffered inputs introduced in Chap. 18, Sec.18-4, “Differential ...

The buffer amplifiers provide very high input impe...
Question: 23.2

## As an example, assume the cable came in two lengths: length A has a total resistance of 15 Ω, and length B has a total resistance of 30 Ω. At 20°C, the RTD has a resistance of 107.79 Ω. The voltage (VAB) with the influence of the cables in Fig. 23-5 can be calculated as shown. ...

Temperature = 20°C Temperature = 100°C V_...