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Chapter 4

Q. 4.4

Write a net ionic equation for each of the following reactions in dilute water solution.

(a) Hypochlorous acid (HClO) and calcium hydroxide.

(b) Ammonia with perchloric acid (HClO_{4}).

(c) Hydriodic acid (HI) with sodium hydroxide.

STRATEGY

1.  Determine the nature of the compound (acid or base; strong or weak) and its reacting species. (Table 4.1 and Figure 4.8 are helpful.)
2. Recall Table 4.2 and write a net ionic equation for the acid-base reaction.

Table 4.1 Common Strong Acids and Bases

Name of Base Base Name of Acid Acid
Lithium hydroxide LiOH Hydrochloric acid HCl
Sodium hydroxide NaOH Hydrobromic acid HBr
Potassium hydroxide KOH Hydriodic acid HI
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)_{2} Nitric acid HNO_{3}
Strontium hydroxide Sr(OH)_{2} Perchloric acid HClO_{4}
Barium hydroxide Ba(OH)_{2} Sulfuric acid H_{2}SO_{4}

Table 4.2 Types of Acid-Base Reactions

Net Ionic Equation Reacting Species Reactants
H^{+}(aq) + OH^{-}(aq)H_{2}O H^{+}–OH^{-} Strong acid–strong base
HB(aq) + OH^{-}(aq) H_{2}O + B^{-}(aq) HB–OH^{-} Weak acid–strong base
H^{+}(aq) + B(aq) → BH^{+}(aq) H^{+}–B Strong acid–weak base
fig 4.8

Step-by-Step

Verified Solution

HClO: weak acid; Ca(OH)_{2}: strong base

For HClO: HClO; for Ca(OH)_{2}:  OH^{-}

HClO(aq) + OH^{-}(aq)ClO^{-}(aq)  +  H_{2}O

(a) Nature of the compounds reacting species net ionic equation
HClO_{4}: strong acid; NH_{3}: weak base

For HClO_{4}: H^{+}; for NH_{3}: NH_{3}

H^{+}(aq) +NH_{3}(aq)NH_{4}^{+}(aq)

(b) Nature of the compounds reacting species net ionic equation
HI: strong acid; NaOH: strong base

For HI: H^{+} ; for NaOH: OH^{-}

H^{+}(aq) + OH^{-}(aq)H_{2}O

(c) Nature of the compounds reacting species net ionic equation