## Chapter 4

## Q. 4.22

The following masses, in grams, were recorded in an experiment to determine the average mass of a U.S. penny.

3.067 3.049 3.039 2.514 3.048 3.079 3.094 3.109 3.102

Determine if the value of 2.514 g is an outlier at α = 0.05.

## Step-by-Step

## Verified Solution

To begin with, place the masses in order from smallest to largest

2.514 3.039 3.048 3.049 3.067 3.079 3.094 3.102 3.109

and calculate Q_{exp}

Q_{exp}=\frac{X_2-X_1}{X_9-X_1}=\frac{3.039-2.514}{3.109-2.514} =0.882

The critical value for Q(0.05, 9) is 0.493. Since Q_{exp} > Q(0.05, 9) the value is assumed to be an outlier, and can be rejected.