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Find the load voltage { v }_{ L} in the circuit of Fig. 5.98.

Step-by-step

Since no current flows into the input terminals of ideal op amp, there is no voltage drop across the 20 kΩ resistor. As a voltage summer, the output of the first op amp is

{ v }_{ 01 } = 0.4

The second stage is an inverter

\begin{aligned}\mathrm{v}_{2} &=-\frac{250}{100} \mathrm{v}_{01} \\&=-2.5(0.4)=\underline{-1 \mathrm{V}}\end{aligned}

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